Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2025

  • ID:PD022452
  • May 2020
  • GIR (Global Info Research)
                          

The Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Report is equipped with market data from 2015 to 2025. The report gives a market overview covering key drivers and risks factors. The report is bifurcated by top global manufactures mentioning sales, revenue and prices as applicable. It also evaluates the competitive scenario of the leading players. The report expands to cover regional market data along with type and application. The report forecasts sales and revenue from 2020 to 2025. The detailed sales channel is also covered in the study.

The Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine market report provides a detailed analysis of global market size, regional and country-level market size, segmentation market growth, market share, competitive Landscape, sales analysis, impact of domestic and global market players, value chain optimization, trade regulations, recent developments, opportunities analysis, strategic market growth analysis, product launches, area marketplace expanding, and technological innovations.

The most likely (base case) scenario is that the global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine sales will be xx in 2020 from Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine million in 2019, with a change xx% between 2019 and 2020. In addition, based on the latest study, it is to predict that the Covid-19 will be under control in key countries like the United States, Western Europe, East Asia, by the end of Q2 (June), and will resume normal production in Q3 and Q4, the global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine market size is expected to grow at xx% or more annually for the next five years.

This report also researches and evaluates the impact of Covid-19 outbreak on the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine industry, involving potential opportunity and challenges, drivers and risks. We present the impact assessment of Covid-19 effects on Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine and market growth forecast based on different scenario (optimistic, pessimistic, very optimistic, most likely etc.).

Market Segmentation
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine market is split by Type and by Application. For the period 2015-2025, the growth among segments provide accurate calculations and forecasts for sales by Type and by Application in terms of volume and value. This analysis can help you expand your business by targeting qualified niche markets.

By Type, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine market has been segmented into

  • Electrohydraulic
  • Piezoelectric
  • Electromagnetic

By Application, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine has been segmented into:
  • Kidney Stones
  • Biliary Calculi
  • Salivary Stones
  • Pancreatic Stones
  • Others

Regions and Countries Level Analysis
Regional analysis is another highly comprehensive part of the research and analysis study of the global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine market presented in the report. This section sheds light on the sales growth of different regional and country-level Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine markets. For the historical and forecast period 2015 to 2025, it provides detailed and accurate country-wise volume analysis and region-wise market size analysis of the global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine market.

The report offers in-depth assessment of the growth and other aspects of the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine market in important countries (regions), including:
  • North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)
  • Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)
  • Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)
  • South America (Brazil, Argentina, etc.)
  • Middle East & Africa (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

Competitive Landscape and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Share Analysis
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine competitive landscape provides details by vendors, including company overview, company total revenue (financials), market potential, global presence, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine sales and revenue generated, market share, price, production sites and facilities, SWOT analysis, product launch. For the period 2015-2020, this study provides the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine sales, revenue and market share for each player covered in this report.

The major players covered in Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine are:
  • WIKKON
  • MTS
  • Haibin
  • HYDE
  • Richard-Wolf
  • Sody
  • Siemens
  • Dornier
  • Comermy
  • Direx
  • EMD
  • EDAP TMS
  • US
  • ELMED
  • Storz
  • Allengers
  • Medispec

Among other players domestic and global, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine market share data is available for global, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa and South America separately. 

The content of the study subjects, includes a total of 15 chapters:
Chapter 1, to describe Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market driving force and market risks.
Chapter 2, to profile the top manufacturers of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine, with price, sales, revenue and global market share of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine in 2018 and 2019.
Chapter 3, the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine competitive situation, sales, revenue and global market share of top manufacturers are analyzed emphatically by landscape contrast.
Chapter 4, the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2015 to 2020.
Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to break the sales data at the country level, with sales, revenue and market share for key countries in the world, from 2015 to 2020.
Chapter 10 and 11, to segment the sales by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2015 to 2020.
Chapter 12, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2020 to 2025.
Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine sales channel, distributors, customers, research findings and conclusion, appendix and data source.

Table of Contents
 
1 Market Overview
1.1 Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Introduction
1.2 Market Analysis by Type
1.2.1 Overview: Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Revenue by Type: 2015 VS 2019 VS 2025
1.2.2 Electrohydraulic
1.2.3 Piezoelectric
1.2.4 Electromagnetic
1.3 Market Analysis by Application
1.3.1 Overview: Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Revenue by Application: 2015 VS 2019 VS 2025
1.3.2 Kidney Stones
1.3.3 Biliary Calculi
1.3.4 Salivary Stones
1.3.5 Pancreatic Stones
1.3.6 Others
1.4 Overview of Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market
1.4.1 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Status and Outlook (2015-2025)
1.4.2 North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)
1.4.3 Europe (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Russia and Italy)
1.4.4 Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)
1.4.5 South America, Middle East & Africa
1.5 Market Dynamics
1.5.1 Market Opportunities
1.5.2 Market Risk
1.5.3 Market Driving Force
1.6 COVID-19 Outbreak: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Industry Impact
1.6.1 COVID-19 Potential Implications for the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine
1.6.1.1 Scenario One: Very Optimistic: COVID-19 has No Influence on Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine
1.6.1.2 Scenario Two: Optimistic: COVID-19 Will Be Under Control by the End of April
1.6.1.3 Scenario Three: Gloomy: COVID-19 Will Be Under Control Between Q3 and Q4
1.6.1.4 Scenario Four: Most Likely: COVID-19 Will Be Under Control by the End of Q2
1.6.2 Opportunity Analysis in Covid-19 Crisis
1.6.3 Market Risk and Restraints
1.6.4 Market Driving Force
2 Manufacturers Profiles
2.1 WIKKON
2.1.1 WIKKON Details
2.1.2 WIKKON Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.1.3 WIKKON SWOT Analysis
2.1.4 WIKKON Product and Services
2.1.5 WIKKON Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.2 MTS
2.2.1 MTS Details
2.2.2 MTS Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.2.3 MTS SWOT Analysis
2.2.4 MTS Product and Services
2.2.5 MTS Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.3 Haibin
2.3.1 Haibin Details
2.3.2 Haibin Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.3.3 Haibin SWOT Analysis
2.3.4 Haibin Product and Services
2.3.5 Haibin Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.4 HYDE
2.4.1 HYDE Details
2.4.2 HYDE Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.4.3 HYDE SWOT Analysis
2.4.4 HYDE Product and Services
2.4.5 HYDE Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.5 Richard-Wolf
2.5.1 Richard-Wolf Details
2.5.2 Richard-Wolf Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.5.3 Richard-Wolf SWOT Analysis
2.5.4 Richard-Wolf Product and Services
2.5.5 Richard-Wolf Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.6 Sody
2.6.1 Sody Details
2.6.2 Sody Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.6.3 Sody SWOT Analysis
2.6.4 Sody Product and Services
2.6.5 Sody Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.7 Siemens
2.7.1 Siemens Details
2.7.2 Siemens Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.7.3 Siemens SWOT Analysis
2.7.4 Siemens Product and Services
2.7.5 Siemens Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.8 Dornier
2.8.1 Dornier Details
2.8.2 Dornier Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.8.3 Dornier SWOT Analysis
2.8.4 Dornier Product and Services
2.8.5 Dornier Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.9 Comermy
2.9.1 Comermy Details
2.9.2 Comermy Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.9.3 Comermy SWOT Analysis
2.9.4 Comermy Product and Services
2.9.5 Comermy Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.10 Direx
2.10.1 Direx Details
2.10.2 Direx Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.10.3 Direx SWOT Analysis
2.10.4 Direx Product and Services
2.10.5 Direx Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.11 EMD
2.11.1 EMD Details
2.11.2 EMD Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.11.3 EMD SWOT Analysis
2.11.4 EMD Product and Services
2.11.5 EMD Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.12 EDAP TMS
2.12.1 EDAP TMS Details
2.12.2 EDAP TMS Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.12.3 EDAP TMS SWOT Analysis
2.12.4 EDAP TMS Product and Services
2.12.5 EDAP TMS Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.13 US
2.13.1 US Details
2.13.2 US Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.13.3 US SWOT Analysis
2.13.4 US Product and Services
2.13.5 US Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.14 ELMED
2.14.1 ELMED Details
2.14.2 ELMED Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.14.3 ELMED SWOT Analysis
2.14.4 ELMED Product and Services
2.14.5 ELMED Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.15 Storz
2.15.1 Storz Details
2.15.2 Storz Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.15.3 Storz SWOT Analysis
2.15.4 Storz Product and Services
2.15.5 Storz Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.16 Allengers
2.16.1 Allengers Details
2.16.2 Allengers Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.16.3 Allengers SWOT Analysis
2.16.4 Allengers Product and Services
2.16.5 Allengers Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
2.17 Medispec
2.17.1 Medispec Details
2.17.2 Medispec Major Business and Total Revenue (Financial Highlights) Analysis
2.17.3 Medispec SWOT Analysis
2.17.4 Medispec Product and Services
2.17.5 Medispec Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2018-2019)
3 Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Manufacturer
3.1 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Market Share by Manufacturer (2018-2019)
3.2 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Revenue and Market Share by Manufacturer (2018-2019)
3.3 Market Concentration Rate
3.3.1 Top 3 Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Manufacturer Market Share in 2019
3.3.2 Top 6 Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Manufacturer Market Share in 2019
3.4 Market Competition Trend
4 Global Market Analysis by Regions
4.1 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Regions
4.1.1 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)
4.1.2 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Revenue and Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)
4.2 North America Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
4.3 Europe Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
4.4 Asia-Pacific Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
4.5 South America Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
4.6 Middle East and Africa Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
5 North America by Country
5.1 North America Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Country
5.1.1 North America Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)
5.1.2 North America Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Revenue and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)
5.2 United States Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
5.3 Canada Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
5.4 Mexico Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
6 Europe by Country
6.1 Europe Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Country
6.1.1 Europe Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)
6.1.2 Europe Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Revenue and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)
6.2 Germany Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
6.3 UK Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
6.4 France Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
6.5 Russia Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
6.6 Italy Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
7 Asia-Pacific by Regions
7.1 Asia-Pacific Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Regions
7.1.1 Asia-Pacific Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)
7.1.2 Asia-Pacific Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Revenue and Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)
7.2 China Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
7.3 Japan Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
7.4 Korea Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
7.5 India Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
7.6 Southeast Asia Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
7.7 Australia Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
8 South America by Country
8.1 South America Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Country
8.1.1 South America Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)
8.1.2 South America Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Revenue and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)
8.2 Brazil Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
8.3 Argentina Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
9 Middle East & Africa by Countries
9.1 Middle East & Africa Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Country
9.1.1 Middle East & Africa Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)
9.1.2 Middle East & Africa Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Revenue and Market Share by Country (2015-2020)
9.2 Saudi Arabia Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
9.3 Turkey Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
9.4 Egypt Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
9.5 South Africa Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Growth Rate (2015-2020)
10 Market Segment by Type
10.1 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales and Market Share by Type (2015-2020)
10.2 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Revenue and Market Share by Type (2015-2020)
10.3 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Price by Type (2015-2020)
11 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Segment by Application
11.1 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales Market Share by Application (2015-2020)
11.2 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Revenue Market Share by Application (2015-2020)
11.3 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Price by Application (2015-2020)
12 Market Forecast
12.1 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2021-2025)
12.2 Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Forecast by Regions (2021-2025)
12.2.1 North America Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Forecast (2021-2025)
12.2.2 Europe Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Forecast (2021-2025)
12.2.3 Asia-Pacific Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Forecast (2021-2025)
12.2.4 South America Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Forecast (2021-2025)
12.2.5 Middle East & Africa Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Forecast (2021-2025)
12.3 Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Forecast by Type (2021-2025)
12.3.1 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales Forecast by Type (2021-2025)
12.3.2 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Share Forecast by Type (2021-2025)
12.4 Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Forecast by Application (2021-2025)
12.4.1 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Sales Forecast by Application (2021-2025)
12.4.2 Global Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Machine Market Share Forecast by Application (2021-2025)
13 Sales Channel, Distributors, Traders and Dealers
13.1 Sales Channel
13.1.1 Direct Marketing
13.1.2 Indirect Marketing
13.2 Distributors, Traders and Dealers
14 Research Findings and Conclusion
15 Appendix
15.1 Methodology
15.2 Data Source
15.3 Disclaimer
15.4 About US

Related Categories
Medical Devices
Related Reports
Global Air Filter Masks Market Insights, Forecast to 2025

Air Filter Masks Market Research Report offered by DecisionDatabases.com provides a detailed study on the industrial development of the market under the  read more..


Global CT Machine Market Insights, Forecast to 2025

CT Machine Market Research Report offered by DecisionDatabases.com provides a detailed study on the industrial development of the market under the  read more..


Global Bead Wire Market Insights, Forecast to 2025

Bead Wire Market Research Report offered by DecisionDatabases.com provides a detailed study on the industrial development of the market under the  read more..


Global Nasopharyngoscope Market Research Report 2017

The Nasopharyngoscope Market Research Report provides a detailed market overview along with the analysis of industry’s gross margin, cost  read more..


Global Digital Radiography Systems Market Research Report 2017

The Digital Radiography Systems Market Research Report provides a detailed market overview along with the analysis of industry’s gross margin, cost  read more..


Global Dental Extraction Forceps Market Research Report 2017

The Dental Extraction Forceps Market Research Report provides a detailed market overview along with the analysis of industry’s gross margin, cost  read more..


Global Endoscopic Market Research Report 2017

The Global Endoscopic Market Research Report provides a detailed market overview along with the analysis of industry’s gross margin, cost  read more..


Global Bronchoscope Sales Market Report 2017

The Global Bronchoscope Sales Market Research Report provides a detailed market overview along with the analysis of industry’s gross margin, cost  read more..


Global 3D Printing Medical Devices Market Research Report 2017

The Global 3D Printing Medical Devices Market Research Report provides a detailed market overview along with the analysis of industry’s gross  read more..


Global Cystoscope Sales Market Report 2017

The Global Cystoscope Sales Market Research Report provides a detailed market overview along with the analysis of industry’s gross margin, cost  read more..